Final Review of E.Learning course

Blended learning: to be able to use both oncampus and online learning.
Social Constructivism: learning together in a group and through those social interaction - each person constructs their own knowledge. As opposed to direct transmission by the teacher (Les Vygotsky).

ZPD - the gap between what a student can do on their own without any help and what they could achieve with help - this is the gap at which we should be teaching - to build on existing knowledge base.

Scaffolding: The help that is provided to support the student to meet the ZPD, whether it be by

Inquiry based learning: in pure form student should generate the inquiry and then get guidance by teachers to how to answer that question. More often students given an inquiry question to answer (in Singapore across a range of subject areas). Can be a social constructivist approach.

Problem Based learning: instead of starting with an inquiry, start with a problem. Some believe this is straitjacketing into believing there is one solution to a given problem.

Community of practice model: (Etienne Wenger) linking in with a community of like minded professionals. Idea older than the technlogies but found these approaches sit well with this technology as does social constructivism. Professional community may set their own agenda for areas to be learn't or to be developed.

Situated Learning:(Etienne Wenger) learning applied to real world contexts and/or relate to the real working or world environment.

Legitimate peripheral participation (Etienne Wenger) saying that it is ok to lurk before you move into a given community of practice.

Community of inquiry: (Randy Garrison & Terry Anderson) Take social constructivist and community of practice idea and put them together, idea that a community work together to solve a series of questions to solve those problems or develop a particular body of knowledge. Community of inquiry divided into 3 sections.
  • Cognitive presence: The content that is being taught, what concepts are they going to understand by the end, what knowledge and skills with they come online.
  • Social presence: How they collaborate online, communicate to embed their learning, create a social element - the vehicle for social constructivist approach people are learning through collaborating and communicating.
  • Teaching presence: using class room collaboration as everyone can be a teacher and a learner. Distributed amongst all people in the group.
A good pedgagical model to help you build good online social constructivist learning enviornment.
Personal Learning Network: a network of resources and people (experts) that you can use to build your knowledge in an area of knowledge of interest to you. Institutions role to help students build personal learning networks.

Evernote - compilation software for bringing together useful resources. Like a centralised web based notemaking softare and includes multi-media.

Podcast - a audio attached to a RSS feed - a series of related content.

Wiki - how would you describe one, can embed a range of multi-media and is a collaboratively editable website.

Normalisation: when something new becomes an accepted part of everyday language or everyday use. (steven bax came up with the term referred to it in terms of awe or fear reactions.)

Web 2.0 (social web) - the read write web, Berner Lees identification of it - ability to create as well as consume. Fits well with social constructivism.
Knowing the difference between Web 1.0 (informational web) and Web 2.0 = from just transmission of information for passive users.
Web 3.0 (intelligent or semantic web) Tim Berners Lee inventor of the web.

Social media: platforms that support socialisation software (can mean the social web more generally) often used to refer to microblogging sites like Facebook and Twitter.

LMS - Learning Management System, VLE - Virtual Learning Environment (proprietory learning platforms).

Walled Gardens - area of the web that is generally password protected - harder to share across all content on the web. eg. Facebook is a walled garden, hard to export things out of it.

Weaving: Bringing ideas together on a discussion forum in a coordinated way - moderators to pull things back together at the end of a discussion. Seen as particularly important in education.

Flaming - negative abusive language online.

Collective intelligence: the belief in knowledge being put through collective input - such as wikipedia. The basis of innovation and linked to issues of copyright which is now out of control.

Information literacy: the importance of being able to assess online content - espcially as it appears without the usual publication filters that exist in print based world.
Cognitive suplus - idea that everyone has more brain capacity then they are using (Clay Shirkey's term). That online knowledge and application of that knowledge can help to build cognitive connections to ideas.
Folksonomie - a way of indexing information - used instead of a traditional taxonomy.

Weak ties (Mark Granovetter) - that it is not the strong ties that will necessarily benefit you professionally but in fact it will be your weak ties - call on for help, information, advise etc..

Collapsed contexts (Danah Boyd - expert on social networking and implications): tied to idea of online reputations - a blur between professional and social lives that can be read in the wrong way in different contexts. Facebook for instance will collapse all of your social contexts into one, can be retrieved across time/space.

Continual Partial attention: (Linda Stone) our attention divided between so many different information channels and multi-tasking can make you less accurate and effective - can work against reflective academic thought.

Netspeak or text speak - (David Crystal) the abbrieviated language use.

Codeswitching: the ability to know which type of language to use when. (have to know the rules to be able to break them) not harmful to knowledge of Standard english. Similar to teaching use of slang and idiom.

Social Search: The idea that information that is of interest to you will come to you through your social network - your network acting as your filter to get the information of interest to you. Related to term 'social filtering'.

Sousvellance (Steve Man): that ordinary people are keeping an eye on those that are in power. Observation from below. Opposite to surveillance by authority.

Remix or mashup: combining pre-existing artifacts - cultural products - and combining and changing them in ways to create new meaning. Mashup originally referred to music but now equivalent to remix. (careful about being sued). Lawyer (Lawrence Lessing)

E.books and Apps - are about information transmission and about behaviourial repetitive exercises. Pedagogically not social constructivist in nature at the moement.

Web meets world (Tim O'Reilly): covers augmented realities (information on the web overlayed onto the real world) and the internet of things (when your things in the real world have a presence online). These sorts of development will move mobile learning.

Tech-comfy vs tech-savvy - researchers saying that they are not as savvy in online technology as expected, they are comfortable within their own social use but not aware of risks online or ability to use technology for educational and professional purposes.

Identity theft: ACMA, being friends with people, and having information about them that can then be used to manipulate or use their information.

E.waste: what is happening to all of our products when we upgrade, toxins and health risks. Beginnings of legislation against this in quite a few countries.

Machinima: videos taken inside virtual worlds like 2nd life.

MUVE: Multi-user virtual environment (another term for virtual world.)

moblogging: to create multi-media records - making text messages on your mobile out in the real world.

QR Codes - quick response codes like barcodes that take you back to another site.

Mixed reality - linked to web meets world - augmented and internet of things. Idea you can create interesting learning at the cusp of web meets world.

u-learning - ubiquitous, again linked to m.learning - idea that you can learn anywhere, anytime.

Review of theorists and innovators:

  • Tim O'Reilly Media - popularised the term Web 2.0, organiser of conferences around issues related to online learning. Also developed Web meets world.
  • Stephen Bax - came with term of normalisation, needing to get to point its part of our normal repertoire
  • Jimmy Wales - the guy behind wikipedia and supporter of collective intelligence and collaboration
  • Clay Shirky - cognitive surplus - benefits of contributing online over passive tv watching and of collaboration.
  • Lee Vygotsky - social constructivism, ZPD and scaffolding
  • Etienne Wenger - Community of practice model, situated learning and legitimate peripheral participation
  • Randy Garrison and Terry Anderson -Community of Practice, Model of elearning, social presence, cognitive presence, teaching presence.
  • Danah Boyd - working in area of social networking, writes about using social networking sites in an education context. Critical view also.
  • Linda Stone - continuous partial attention, social impacts of being online all the time. Good twitter.
  • Lawrence Lessig - Lawyer working in area of copyright and remix, co-founder of creative commons.
  • Rebecca Mackinnon - Hong Kong University, about the Internet in China and about Govt. surveillance (new book)